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Physiology MCQs Cells and Tissues-1

Cells and Tissues
Cells are composed of their cytoplasm, which includes the cytosol and organelles; the nucleus and the surrounding plasma membrane. You should know that the plasma membrane is a double layer of phospholipid molecules and that these molecules have a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end. The plasma membrane contains proteins including the ATPase (the sodium-potassium pump) which moves sodium ions out of the cell while moving potassium ions into the cell.

You should know the names and function of some of the organelles. For example you should
know that mitochondria produce ATP and that ribosomes synthesise proteins from amino acids. You will become familiar with the names of many cells. Often a word can be recognised as the name of a cell because it ends in “-cyte” or, if it is an immature cell, by ending in “-blast”. Four major types of tissue are identifi ed in the body:
epithelial, connective, muscle and neural tissues. Of course there are many subtypes within these categories. For example epithelial tissue may be squamous, cuboidal, columnar or glandular. Muscle may be skeletal, smooth or cardiac. Connective tissue is quite varied and you should be aware of the many different
examples of tissue that are categorised as “connective”. For example, blood, bone, dermis, cartilage and tendon are all connective tissue.

Referense:-Martin Caon Questions and Answers in Physiology

  1. Which structure within the cell produces ATP (adenosine triphosphate)?
    A. the mitochondria
    B. the nucleus
    C. peripheral proteins
    D. the endoplasmic reticulum
    Answer is A: This is a basic function of mitochondria. All other answers are
  2. Which of the following is NOT a component of the cell plasma membrane?
    A. cholesterol
    B. proteins
    C. microfi laments
    D. phospholipids
    Answer is C: microfi laments occur inside the cell.
  3. Which list below contains the four types of tissue?
    A. extracellular fl uid, skeletal tissue, glandular tissue, connective tissue.
    B. extracellular fl uid, muscle tissue, glandular tissue, cartilaginous tissue.
    C. neural tissue, skeletal tissue, epithelial tissue, cartilaginous tissue.
    D. Neural tissue, muscle tissue, epithelial tissue, connective tissue.
    Answer is D: These are the four types. Extracellular fluid is not a tissue. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue.
  4. Except for one, the following are types of cells. Which one is NOT a type of cell?
    A. platelets
    B. leucocytes
    C. macrophages
    D. osteoblasts
    Answer is A: Platelets are fragments of a cell (a megakaryocyte) bound by a membrane.
  5. In which part of a cell does the process of making ATP from oxygen and glucose take place?
    A. lysosomes
    B. ribosomes
    C. mitochondria
    D. golgi apparatus
    Answer is C: ATP production is the function of mitochondria.
  6. Which of the following is a function of membrane proteins?
    A. to process lipids and proteins for secretion through the plasma membrane
    B. to act as receptors for hormones
    C. to synthesise proteins from amino acids
    D. to act as a cytoskeleton to support and shape the cell
    Answer is B: One function of membrane proteins is to receive (amino acid based) hormones that cannot pass through the plasma membrane.
  7. What is the difference between simple squamous cells and simple columnar cells?
    A. squamous cells are fl attened while columnar cells are taller than they are wide.
    B. simple squamous cells are one layer thick while simple columnar cells are several layers thick.
    C. simple squamous cells are epithelial tissue while simple columnar cells are connective tissue.
    D. squamous cells are fl attened while columnar cells are cuboidal.
    Answer is A: The names of the cells contains a description of their shape: either fl at, or like columns. Simple refers to a single layer of cells
  8. Which of the following is NOT an example of a cell?
    A. macrophages
    B. lysosomes
    C. plasmocytes
    D. chondroblasts
    Answer is B: the suffi x “–some” refers to an organelle within a cell. The other suffi xes all indicate a type of cell.
  9. Which cell organelles contain an acidic environment capable of digesting a wide variety of molecules?
    A. Lysosomes
    B. Ribosomes
    C. Centrosomes
    D. Golgi complex
    Answer is A: the prefi x “lyso-” refers to the ability to dissolve or destroy molecules or cells.
  10. Which form of transport through the plasma membrane requires the expenditure of energy by the cell?
    A. Facilitated diffusion
    B. Osmosis
    C. Active transport
    D. Diffusion
    Answer is C: The term “active” implies using energy (in the form of ATP) to
    move a molecule against its concentration gradient, while the other processes are all passive.
  11. Which of the tissue types below consists of a single layer of cells?
    A. stratifi ed squamous epithelial tissue
    B. glandular epithelium 2.1 Cells and Tissues10
    C. areolar connective tissue
    D. simple columnar epithelial tissue
    Answer is D: the word “simple” indicates a single layer of cells. Stratifi ed means several layers (or strata) of cells.
  12. One of the following is NOT a serous membrane. Which one?
    A. pleura
    B. peritoneum
    C. mucosa
    D. pericardium
    Answer is C: mucosa is a mucus membrane (& secretes mucus)
  13. Which of the following is NOT made predominantly from epithelial tissue?
    A. In the dermis
    B. In exocrine glands
    C. In endocrine glands
    D. In the endothelium of blood vessels
    Answer is A: The dermis contains connective tissue, nervous tissue & muscle as well as epithelial tissue.
  14. What are tendons and ligaments composed of?
    A. Dense connective tissue
    B. Liquid connective tissue
    C. Muscular tissue
    D. Epithelial tissue
    Answer is A: tendons & ligaments are dense CT. This is strong as there is a high proportion of fibres.
  15. What is the composition of the intercellular matrix in connective tissue?
    A. Cells and fi bres
    B. Serous and mucus membranes and lamina propria
    C. Protein fi bres and ground substance
    D. Interstitial fluid
    Answer is C: “intercellular” means between cells. So matrix is fibres & ground substance (but no cells).
  16. Which statement about the plasma membrane is INCORRECT ?
    A. It is selectively permeable.
    B. It is composed of two layers of glycoprotein molecules.
    C. It contains receptors for specifi c signalling molecules. 2 Cells and Tissues11
    D. The plasma membranes of adjacent cells are held together by desmosomes.
    Answer is B: The PM is indeed made of two layers, but they are phospholipid (not glycoprotein) molecules.
  17. Which of the following is NOT epithelial tissue?
    A. the epidermis
    B. glandular tissue
    C. the internal lining of blood vessels
    D. the dermis
    Answer is D: The dermis contains some of all four types of tissue.
  18. Which of the following is NOT a cell found in connective tissue?
    A. adipocytes
    B. chondroblasts
    C. keratinocytes
    D. osteoblasts
    Answer is C: Keratinocytes are in the epidermis which is epithelial tissue. The other cell types occur in fat, cartilage and bone.
  19. What tissue has cells that are closely packed and that have one surface attached to a basement membrane and the other free to a space?
    A. epithelial tissue
    B. muscle tissue
    C. connective tissue
    D. nervous tissue
    Answer is A: This is a defi nition of epithelial tissue.
  20. What is the name of the mechanism that ensures that there is a higher concentration of sodium ions in the extracellular fluid than in the intracellular fl uid?
    A. Facilitated diffusion
    B. The sodium-potassium pump
    C. Secondary active transport
    D. Osmosis
    Answer is B: The “pump” (or ATPase) transports Na + out and K + into the cell.
  21. What are lysosomes, centrosomes and ribosomes example of?
    A. stem cells
    B. organelles within a cell
    C. sensory receptors in the dermis
    D. exocrine glands
    Answer is B: the suffi x “–some” refers to small body or organelle within a cell. 2.1 Cells and Tissues12
  22. What does simple columnar epithelial tissue refer to? Tissue with
    A. a single layer of cells longer than they are wide.
    B. a single layer of cells whose length, breadth and depth are about the same size.
    C. several layers of cells, all of the same type.
    D. several layers of cells but without a basement membrane.
    Answer is A: simple = one layer. Columnar means oblong or shaped like a column.
  23. Which of the following is NOT an example of connective tissue?
    A. blood
    B. bone
    C. tendon
    D. epidermis
    Answer is D: the epidermis (on top of the dermis) is epithelial tissue.
  24. What is the function of phospholipids in the plasma membrane?
    A. to maintain the intracellular fl uid at a similar composition to that of the interstitial fl uid.
    B. to form channels to selectively allow passage of small molecules.
    C. to act as receptors for signalling chemicals.
    D. to present a barrier to the passage of water-soluble molecules.
    Answer is D: molecules that are soluble in water cannot pass through lipid (fat). So the phospholipids are a barrier. The functions described by B. & C. are performed by other molecules in the plasma membrane.
  25. Which one of the following cell types is found in epithelial tissue?
    A. plasma cells
    B. leucocytes
    C. keratinocytes
    D. chondroblasts
    Answer is C: keratinocytes produce keratin, the protein of the epidermis, which is epithelial tissue.
  1. Which of the following is NOT part of the plasma membrane of a cell?
    A. integral proteins
    B. glycoproteins
    C. plasma proteins
    D. peripheral proteins
    Answer is C: as the name implies, plasma proteins are found in the blood plasma. Not to be confused with the plasma membrane. 2 Cells and Tissues13
  2. A major role for mitochondria is to
    A. transcribe the information in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    B. produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
    C. synthesise proteins from amino acids
    D. use enzymes to lyse molecules
    Answer is B: ATP is only produced within the mitochondria.
  3. Choose the tissue below that is one of the four primary types of body tissue.
    A. epidermal tissue
    B. epithelial tissue
    C. interstitial tissue
    D. osseous tissue
    Answer is B: epithelial is a major tissue type (as is muscle, nervous & connective)
  4. What are the primary types of tissue in the body?
    A. Muscle, nervous, connective and epithelial
    B. Muscle, nervous, connective, osseous and epithelial
    C. Muscle, nervous, connective, osseous, blood and epithelial
    D. Muscle, nervous, connective, glandular and epithelial
    Answer is A: There are 4 major types (not 5 or 6). Osseous & blood are also connective, while glandular tissue is also epithelial.
  5. What is the name of the membrane that surrounds the lungs?
    A. visceral peritoneum
    B. parietal peritoneum
    C. visceral pleura
    D. dura mater
    Answer is C: Pleura is around the lung, while visceral refers to the layer of the pleura that is attached to the lung surface.
  6. What is a role performed by mitochondria?
    A. contain enzymes capable of digesting molecules
    B. produce ATP
    C. synthesise proteins
    D. synthesise fatty acids, phospholipids & cholesterol
    Answer is B: mitochondria produce ATP. The other tasks are performed by lysosomes, ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum respectively. 2.1 Cells and Tissues14
  7. Which of the following is NOT found in the plasma membrane?
    A. proteins
    B. cholesterol
    C. endoplasmic reticulum
    D. phospholipids
    Answer is C: endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle and found within the cell.
  8. Which one of the following cell types is found in epithelial tissue?
    A. mast cells
    B. adipocytes
    C. chondroblasts
    D. keratinocytes
    Answer is D: These cells produce keratin, the protein of the stratum corneum
  9. Which of the following is NOT part of the plasma membrane of a cell?
    A. phospholipid
    B. glycoprotein
    C. chromatin
    D. cholesterol
    Answer is C: chromatin makes up chromosomes.
  10. A major role for mitochondria is to
    A. synthesise fatty acids, phospholipids & steroids
    B. deliver lipids and proteins to plasma membrane for secretion
    C. synthesise proteins from amino acids
    D. produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
    Answer is D: mitochondria produce ATP from glucose
  11. Choose the tissue below that is NOT one of the four primary types of body tissue.
    A. connective tissue
    B. muscular tissue
    C. nervous tissue
    D. osseous tissue
    Answer is D: osseous tissue (or bone) is a connective tissue
  12. What is the purpose of mitochondria?
    A. to store the nucleolus and chromatin
    B. to produce adenosine triphosphate 2 Cells and Tissues15
    C. to support and shape the cell.
    D. they produce enzymes to break down molecules
    Answer is B: Mitochondria are the site of ATP production
  13. The plasma membrane of a cell contains molecules that have a hydrophobic end and a hydrophilic end What are they called?
    A. phospholipids
    B. cholesterol
    C. integral proteins
    D. glycoproteins
    Answer is A: the phosphate end is hydrophilic (water soluble) while the lipid end is hydrophobic (insoluble in water).
  14. Adipocytes are found in which type of tissue?
    A. muscle tissue
    B. epithelial tissue
    C. nervous tissue
    D. connective tissue
    Answer is D: adipocytes are found in fat (adipose tissue) which is a type of connective tissue.
  15. What is the role of mitochondria? To:
    A. function in cell division
    B. synthesise proteins
    C. form part of the plasma membrane
    D. synthesise fatty acids, phospholipids and steroids.
    Answer is C: mitochondria produce ATP
  16. Which one of the following cell types is found in epithelial tissue?
    A. mast cells
    B. adipocytes
    C. chondroblasts
    D. melanocytes
    Answer is D: melanocytes produce melanin to protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation and it results in tanning of the skin.
  17. What is the difference between “loose” connective tissue (CT) and “dense” connective tissue?
    A. Fibres occupy most of the volume in dense CT
    B. Dense CT includes cartilage, loose CT does not. 2.1 Cells and Tissues16
    C. Loose CT has a good blood supply while dense CT does not.
    D. Loose CT has no fi bres (and dense CT does).
    Answer is A: the preponderance of fi bres is what makes the CT “dense”. Cartilage is classifi ed as supportive CT.
  18. Facilitated diffusion refers to the process of
    A. movement along a concentration gradient assisted by protein carrier molecules.
    B. movement of ions and molecules along a concentration gradient.
    C. transport of molecules and ions against their concentration gradient.
    D. water movement through a semi-permeable membrane
    Answer is A: facilitated refers to the role of the protein carriers. The other choices refer to diffusion, active transport and osmosis respectively
  19. What do fi broblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts and haemocytoblasts have in common?
    A. they are all types of white blood cell.
    B. they are all macrophages.
    C. they are all immature cells.
    D. they are all types of epithelial cell.
    Answer is C: the suffi x “-blast” implies that these cells have not yet fi nished their differentiation. That is are immature.
  20. Which is NOT true of connective tissue (CT)?
    A. the cells are closely packed
    B. the tissue contains protein fi bres and ground substance.
    C. types include loose CT, dense CT and liquid CT.
    D. CT contains white blood cells.
    Answer is A: being close packed in a property of epithelial tissue. In CT the cells are widely spaced, being separated by the ground substance.
  21. Active transport across the plasma membrane may be described by which statement?
    A. active transport requires energy from ATP.
    B. active transport is also known as endocytosis.
    C. active transport moves molecules along their concentration gradient.
    D. active transport is the movement of lipid-soluble molecules through the plasma membrane.
    Answer is A: this is the only correct answer. The others are not true. 2 Cells and Tissues17
  22. Which of the following cell types denotes an immature cell?
    A. macrophages
    B. monocytes
    C. osteoblasts
    D. ribosomes
    Answer is C: The suffi x “-blast” indicates that the cell is immature.
  23. Choose the membrane that is NOT a serous membrane.
    A. pleura
    B. peritoneum
    C. pericardium
    D. lamina propria
    Answer is D: the lamina propria is a “basement membrane” attached to epithelial tissue. The others are serous membranes.
  24. Which organelle is the site of ATP production?
    A. the nucleus
    B. endoplasmic reticulum
    C. mitochondria
    D. golgi apparatus
    Answer is C: the mitochondria is where ATP is produced.
  25. Which of the following is ONE major function of epithelial cells?
    A. movement
    B. secretion
    C. support of other cell types
    D. transmit electrical signals
    Answer is B: glandular tissue are one type of epithelial tissue and their function is to produce material to secrete.
Dr .Lalit Choudhary
Hii everyone, I'm Dr Lalit Choudhary PT. Born and brought up in delhi. Practicing as a professional PHYSIOTHERAPIST. As a therapist I love to interact with others and and get myself updated regarding all the social issues which are leading my countrymen to distress themselves. Yes, I agree that Iam a workaholic but my work gives me immense pleasure but there are sometimes when I feel stressed up so to relax myself I travel to new places, meet new people and try to adopt their culture. Most of the time I like to travel hills as it helps me to relax and enjoy our nature beauty. For being a good therapist and to deal with all the difficulties I always prefer to be good listener and have good patience that is what my strength is. I also work as a social worker and the Founder of thesocialphysiofitnessclub and PHYSIO FIT INDIA. In last I just want to say that " I believe that physical therapy is not just a therapy but actually a remedy which not only make you physically fit but also adds happiness, joy and more days to your life." So don't just sit and thought now it's time to stand and work on yourself.

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