This Website is for medical students and residents who are starting to learn about the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation anatomy online multiple choice questions. It is not meant as a board review, but rather as a tool to support learning throughout training. The question and answer (Q&A) format can be utilized to teach the basics of the field and reinforce knowledge acquired.
Students are encouraged to use this format to learn in a consequence-free environment and to enhance understanding in the areas they find weaknesses.
Multiple choice questions on anatomy
The goal of this Website is not merely to get the correct answer and test knowledge, but to promote a greater understanding of this broad field of medicine. Optimal learning requires an appreciation of why the other choices are incorrect. Students are encouraged to read the answers and rationales for all of the questions to solidify and add to their understanding. If the student finds that he or she is missing questions in one particular area, further study in that area is encouraged.
We took the comments regarding the first edition very seriously. We hope that the answers are more comprehensive so that the reader’s knowledge is expanded. The breadth and depth of the field has expanded. Therefore, we have expanded explanations, added questions, and included new sections. We hope that this Website stimulates learning about this ever-evolving and expanding field. If it does, our patients are the ones who will ultimately benefit.
Multiple choice questions on anatomy
🔰The gastrocnemius muscle is supplied by which nerve?
A) Femoral nerve
B) Obturator nerve
C) Common peroneal nerve
D) Tibial nerve
🔰Which nerve root will most likely be affected by a posterior L3-L4 herniated disk?
🔰Which meniscus is “O” shaped in the knee?
A) Medial meniscus
B) Anterior meniscus
C) Lateral meniscus
D) Posterior meniscus
🔰The radial head articulates with which part of the humerus?
C) Lateral epicondyle
D) Coronoid process
🔰Sensory innervation to the area of skin over the middle (dermatome) is subserved by afferent
fibers from which dorsal root?
🔰The muscles innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve includes all of the following except:
C) Biceps brachii
🔰What nerve innervates the levator scapulae and the rhomboids?
A) Suprascapular nerve
B) Subscapular nerve
C) Dorsal scapular nerve
D) Axillary nerve
🔰Which is the only carpal bone that crosses both the proximal and distal carpal rows?
B) Scaphoid (navicular)
🔰The intrinsic back muscles act to maintain posture and control of the spinal column and are innervated by the posterior rami of spinal nerves. Of these, the intermediate layer of the intrinsic back muscles include all of the following except:
🔰Which ligament of the spine resists extension?
A) Posterior longitudinal ligament
B) Ligamentum flavum and facet joint capsule
C) Anterior longitudinal ligament
D) Interspinous and supraspinous ligaments
🔰All of the following are true about the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) except:
A) It originates in the medial femoral condyle and attaches to the lateral tibial eminence
B) It draws the femoral condyles anteriorly during flexion
C) Prevents hyperextension of the knee and backward sliding of the femur
D) Internal rotation of the femur tightens it, and external rotation loosens it
🔰Which muscle is an ankle dorsiflexor and inverter?
A) Tibialis anterior
B) Peroneus tertius
C) Peroneus brevis
🔰Where is the most common location of an Achilles tendon rupture?
A) At the attachment to the calcaneus
B) At the aponeurosis of the gastrocnemius
C) 2 to 5 cm proximal to tendon insertion at calcaneus
D) Near the soleus
🔰Shoulder range of motion (ROM) involves 180° of flexion, 180° of abduction, 60° of extension, and 60° of adduction. A balance exists between the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic motion during shoulder abduction. How many degrees of scapulothoracic motion is involved in shoulder abduction?
🔰Nerve connective tissue includes all of the following except:
A) Myelin sheath
🔰What nerve innervates the subscapularis muscle?
A) Dorsal scapular nerve
B) Suprascapular nerve
C) Subscapular nerve
D) Musculocutaneous nerve
🔰What is the function of the dorsal interosseous (DIO) muscles?
A) Finger adduct and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) flexion
B) MCP extension and wrist extension
C) Finger abduction and MCP extension
D) Finger abduction and MCP flexion
🔰Where is the insertion of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle?
A) Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint
B) Proximal phalanx
C) Middle phalanx
D) Distal phalanx
🔰What type of joint is the hip?
A) Ball and socket
🔰What part of the meniscus of the knee is poorly vascularized?
A) Peripheral (outer) 1/3
B) Peripheral (outer) 2/3
C) Inner (central) 2/3
D) Inner (central) 1/3
Multiple choice questions on anatomy 1 to 20 Questions and Answers
- D) The tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve innervates the gastrocnemius, popliteus, soleus, and plantaris muscles. The sural nerve is a cutaneous branch of the tibial, but also receives innervation from the peroneal nerve.
- C) Posterior herniations commonly miss the nerve in the foramen, and instead tends to affect the nerve one level distal. This is because the roots from the level below are located more laterally before exiting the canal, making them more vulnerable to impingement.
- C) The lateral meniscus is larger than the medial meniscus, which is shaped like a “C.” There are no structures named anterior or posterior meniscus.
- B) The distal humerus has two surfaces of articulation: the capitellum and the trochlea. The radial head articulates with the capitellum and the ulna articulates with the trochlea.
- C) Although there is considerable overlap between adjacent dermatomes, the C7 dermatome supplies sensation to the area of skin over the middle finger. The C6 dermatome supplies sensation to the first digit, whereas the C8 dermatome supplies the fifth digit. The C5 dermatome supplies sensation to the lateral aspect of arm.
- D) The brachioradialis muscle is innervated by the radial nerve.
- C) The dorsal scapular nerve innervates both levator scapulae and the rhomboids.
- B) The scaphoid bone is the only carpal bone that crosses both carpal rows. This position not only provides stability, but also places the scaphoid at the greatest risk of injury.
- D) The semispinalis muscle is one of the deep layers of intrinsic back muscles and arises from approximately half of the spine—hence its name. It is divided into three parts: semispinalis capitis, semispinalis thoracis, and semispinalis cervices. The other muscles in the deep layer of intrinsic back muscles are the multifi dus and the rotators. Collectively, the deep layer of the intrinsic back muscles is known as the transversospinal muscle group.
- C) The anterior longitudinal ligament runs anteriorly and vertically attaching to the front of each vertebra. It traverses all of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks and helps resist extension.
- A) The ACL originates in the lateral femoral condyle and attaches to the medial tibial eminence after traveling through the intercondylar notch.
- A) Tibialis anterior is an ankle dorsiflexor and inverter. Peroneus tertius dorsiflexes and everts the foot. Peroneus brevis everts and plantar flexes the foot. The plantaris is a weak plantar flexor.
- C) The “watershed zone” of the Achilles is in the substance of the tendoachilles, approximately 2 to 5 cm above the calcaneal insertion of the tendon. This is an area of hypovascularity where most ruptures occur.
- B) Overall, there is 2° of glenohumeral motion for every 1° of scapulothoracic motion during shoulder abduction (120° of glenohumeral motion to 60° of scapulothoracic motion). However, in a normal shoulder, the majority of the initial ROM occurs at the glenohumeral joint when the arm is supinated.
- A) Endoneurium is the connective tissue that surrounds each individual axon and its myelin sheath. The perinurium surrounds the fascicles. The epineurium is the connective tissue that surrounds a peripheral nerve. The myelin sheath itself improves conductance of the electrical signal down an axon and is not part of the surrounding supportive structure.
- C) The subscapular nerve innervates the subscapularis and the teres major muscles.
- D) The DIO muscles are part of the intrinsic group of muscles in the hand. The DIO proximally attach at adjacent metacarpals and distally attach to proximal phalanges. Their main function is to abduct the digits and for MCP flexion.
- A) The FDS inserts at the middle phalanx of the index, middle, ring, and small fingers. The FDS muscle’s origins are the medial humeral epicondyle, the coronoid process of the ulna, and the upper anterior surface of the radius. Its main action is to fl ex the fingers at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints. However, it also acts to fl ex the hand and wrist.
- A) Hinged joints only allow a small range of motion (ROM) (eg, the humerus with the ulna and radius). Pivot joints allow a wide ROM, but not as much freedom as ball-and-socket joints (between atlas and axis). Gliding joints allow sliding motion between two bones (eg, wrist and ankle). Ball-and-socket joints have full ROM (hips, shoulders).
- C) Most meniscal tissue is avascular and depends on passive diffusion and mechanical pumping to provide nutrition to the fi brocytes within the meniscal substance. The limited peripheral blood supply originates from the medial and lateral inferior and superior geniculate arteries. Repair is usually only successful in well-vascularized areas.